UPDATE: Looks like this was a mistake. Google has said that it didn't intend to make the Phone app compatible with non-Nexus phones, and it's even go so far as to block sideloading, too.
Heads up, owners of non-Nexus Android phones, because you may want to check out this Google app that’s probably now available to you.
The Google-made Phone app is available to non-Nexus devices as of the recent v2.05 update. This Phone app ships with Nexus smartphones, but most other devices ship with a custom dialer from their manufacturer. Thanks to this update, devices like the HTC 10, Samsung Galaxy S7, LG G5 and LG G4, OnePlus One, and more can also install Google’s Phone app.
The Phone app offers features like caller ID, call blocking, visual voicemail, and the ability to search for nearby places and call them from within the Phone app.
While Google’s Phone app does appear to support non-Nexus devices now, it does look like you’ll need Android 6.0 Marshmallow to install it on your phone. If you do have a Marshmallow phone, Google’s Phone app is worth a try for its caller ID and search features. Just install the app from Google Play, give it the necessary permissions, and you should be good to go.